In the course of the newest Electrical Coin Co. (ECC) quarterly livestream, we shared our R&D and engineering technique to advance the way forward for Zcash. On this publish, we delve a bit deeper into this part of our general ECC flight plan and lay out a imaginative and prescient of what’s potential for the way forward for Zcash.

This publish outlines what could possibly be; we acknowledge there’s a fragile steadiness between being formidable and life like, telling a narrative that’s inspiring whereas additionally avoiding the crypto hype machine. To remain accountable to our flight plan objectives, we’ll publish an replace within the first quarter subsequent yr. It is going to assess our execution and the strategic outcomes from this quarter’s plan and current any related strategic modifications.

Beneath, we summarize our considering on the technical goals that would unlock exponential momentum and adoption within the years to come back.

Our R&D and engineering technique is targeted on (a) interoperability and (b) enabling extra events to take part in Zcash improvement. A few of our R&D goals contain cutting-edge expertise that has but to be examined, a lot much less applied into sensible makes use of and production-ready code. However, we’re dedicated to exploring and growing this analysis to advance Zcash and privacy-preserving expertise throughout the trade. Our engineering efforts are the bedrock of the protocol as we convey R&D to life responsibly, stopping or shortly mitigating disastrous bugs and safety points.

The flight plan

We envision Zcash turning into a usable, protected, international, permissionless, and personal retailer of worth and medium of alternate. We all know it received’t be a straightforward street to get there. As an organization, we’re dedicated to bettering agility, speaking our imaginative and prescient and rationale, and remaining accountable to the group. At ECC, we consider a future model of Zcash could be absolutely shielded, which would offer the strongest privateness advantages for customers, and likewise simplify usability and technical issues. Moreover, we’ve decided that, a minimum of for the following yr, it’s crucial to not impede or decelerate adoption of Zcash’s clear performance by new companies or merchandise. Thus our technique accommodates each shielded and clear improvement and adoption.

Our flight plan outlines the place we’re going and what we have to get there. At ECC, we consider “the place we’re going” by way of three horions: quick time period, close to time period and long run. We consider our goals as what we have to get there.

Three horizons

Horizon 1: 0-6 months, quick time period

Horizon 1 is particularly targeted on group enablement and interoperability, with particular consideration on shielded cell SDKs, viewing key assist and Blossom activation. We anticipate that Zcash will proceed to have widespread adoption amongst well-regulated exchanges with liquidity in a number of fiat buying and selling pairs. The primary manufacturing cell wallets supporting Zcash shielded performance will likely be deployed and improved upon on this horizon. ECC is not the first developer of the Zcash base protocol and infrastructure, with a second consensus node implementation, zebra, approaching a production-ready launch. Moreover, a number of improvement orgs are actively collaborating on upcoming protocol options.

Horizon 2: 6-24 months, close to time period

Horizon 2 and three plans are extra speculative and primarily based on the group’s choice on ECC funding.

Our imaginative and prescient is that inside two years the Zcash group could have instituted a qualitative change to the present governance construction for Zcash. We consider it’s possible (though not assured) that there will likely be a improvement fund with a portion of funds coming from blockchain issuance guidelines. 

Throughout Horizon 2, we’re assured that Zcash will activate Community Upgrades Three and 4. Two totally different consensus node codebases will function on mainnet. A number of persistent public testnets will exist for prototyping totally different protocol options. We additionally intend to spend our concentrate on Layer 1 scalability approaches, akin to HALO analysis. On this horizon, most of our “direct customers” will likely be distributors, organizations or tasks, moderately than finish customers. 

We additionally anticipate that in Horizon 2, a number of events will proceed the work on wrapped ZEC bridges, WTPs and Layer 2 assist. (See David Campbell’s livestream presentation.) We predict a number of companies throughout key verticals will undertake Zcash shielded assist, together with client cell noncustodial wallets, exchanges, cost techniques and extra mining swimming pools. Viewing key assist will likely be mature in manufacturing, enabling new Zcash-specific purposes, akin to safe alternate scorching/chilly wallet-monitoring techniques, privacy-protecting portfolio-monitoring instruments, enterprise block explorers with non-public account views, and client messaging integrations. We consider this “minimal viable closed financial loop” throughout the Zcash shielded ecosystem will result in elevated adoption, impartial of ECC or Zcash Basis efforts. We consider this can current a compelling sufficient enterprise case for companies to offer shielded assist. We additionally count on that robust privateness assist will likely be seen as a necessity for all public blockchains on this time interval.

Horizon 3: 2-Four yr vary, long run

Our long run imaginative and prescient — for the following 4 yearsis that Zcash will emerge as a mature, protected, non-public, permissionless store-of-value and medium-of-exchange. We consider cryptocurrencies, Zcash particularly, could have highly effective medium-of-exchange (MoE) utilization, particularly in areas with poorly managed regional financial coverage, in addition to globally in numerous internet-native companies and merchandise. Basically, we count on cryptocurrencies will proceed to realize inroads in mainstream markets, accruing a world community impact as they do. Lastly, we count on “different infrastructure” to proceed to develop in scope, although not displacing central web infrastructure on this time vary. We embrace issues like DAOs, different naming techniques, p2p cloud computing, and payments-integrated social networking on this class.

Given these beliefs, we see Zcash as one of many main stores-of-value and a mediums-of-exchange, notably for areas with unstable financial coverage, decentralized monetary ecosystems, and the choice infrastructure class. We consider Zcash will likely be aggressive on this position resulting from its best-in-class privateness properties, interoperability and assist for L2 use circumstances together with micropayments. On this Horizon 3, protocol improvement ought to be extremely decentralized with persistent testnets mixing and matching prototyped options.

Horizon 1 ECC goals and key outcomes 

We have now damaged down our increased stage technique into eight goals.

Goals are long-lived focuses of our effort. They’re outlined with quick qualitative descriptions. We offer a rationale for aiming for the target. We then specific our believed advantages of pursuing this goal over the three time horizons.

For every goal, we describe our key outcomes in opposition to that goal, together with what effort we intend to take this quarter, our execution success standards and strategic success indicators.

Execution success standards try to be outlined in phrases that ECC can full with out counting on exterior events or secure exterior circumstances. Attaining them or failing to realize them over 1 / 4 retains our execution accountable.

Against this, strategic success indicators are occasions or metrics that recommend our efforts are having the specified impression within the market. If we execute efficiently however don’t see strategic success indicators it might be resulting from both mistaken beliefs guiding our goal or externally shifting circumstances within the market.

With this framework at hand, listed here are our present engineering goals for the following six months:

  1. Flyclient MMR assist
  2. Whitelisted Clear Applications
  3. Cellular pockets SDK enhancements
  4. Viewing key assist
  5. Ethereum protocol enhancements for Zcash
  6. Dev fund protocol assist
  7. Neighborhood-driven protocol improvement
  8. Scalability 2021


We all know these objectives are formidable. We’d solely obtain 80% of what we’ve laid out. We decide to being clear and particular about our plans in order that the remainder of the Zcash group could be impressed to (hopefully) construct alongside us. What do you suppose we will accomplish with lower than two vacation stuffed months left within the quarter? You’ll need to tune in subsequent time to seek out out!


Flyclient MMR assist

Description: Flyclient’s Merkle Mountain Vary protocol characteristic allows environment friendly proofs of Proof-of-Work for gentle purchasers. Along with enabling improved light-client wallets, this improves many cross-chain protocols. This characteristic is laid out in ZIP 221.

Rationale: This characteristic allows tZEC, a concrete use case. It additionally allows a category of cross-chain integration and lite-client use circumstances. If this characteristic is deployed in NU3, it has the potential to allow a number of interoperability protocols and services or products constructed upon them.

Effort: We’ll coordinate a number of developer orgs on design and implementation, and combine MMR libraries into Zcashd.

Execution success cCriteria:

  • Technical evaluate of ZIP 221
  • A useful prototype in a Zcashd improvement department

Strategic success indicators:

  • Preserve and supply a deployment timeline for tZEC
  • Bonus: Another MMR-based characteristic is introduced by third celebration

Whitelisted Clear Applications

Description: Whitelisted Clear Applications simplify extending consensus upgrades to transaction semantics outdoors of Bitcoin script, with out robust privateness. They use a UTXO semantic mannequin, but have broader capabilities than Bitcoin script. Their specification is in a ZIP draft state. 

Rationale: The WTP characteristic simplifies BOLT Layer 2 assist, a concrete use case. Moreover, it allows a big design area of future protocol upgrades to increase transaction semantics. If this characteristic is included in NU4, it will probably allow new WTP-based characteristic improvement to assist desired use circumstances (doubtlessly dynamic programmability options, covenants, an on-chain naming system, or others).

Effort: Finalize the ZIP specification, present a library for zcashd implementation, and implement a proof-of-concept prototype.

Execution success standards:

  • The ZIP specification is submitted for NU4 acceptance
  • A zcashd implementation exists in a improvement department
  • There’s a functioning proof-of-concept WTP program

Strategic success indicators:

  • The ZIP specification is accepted into NU4
  • Bolt Labs publicizes a useful check prototype of BOLT assist primarily based on WTPs

Cellular pockets SDK enhancements

Description: The ECC Cellular Pockets SDK and related protocol and backend elements allow shielded cell wallets and related purposes.

Rationale: A consumer-facing shielded lite pockets is the primary service essential to encourage shielded adoption. Improvement of a brand new modular pockets engine is reusable in different merchandise and use circumstances past cell wallets.

Effort: Introduce iOS assist in order that (with Android) each main cell platforms are supported natively. Develop a mainnet-ready inner prototype inside ECC to be taught concerning the full deployment stack together with finish consumer UX testing.

Execution success standards:

  • SDK assist for core shielded performance on iOS and Android
  • SDK assist for clear transactions on each platforms
  • Inner “dogfood app” is installable on an invite-only foundation and may transact on mainnet

Strategic success indicators:

  • A 3rd-party cell pockets publicizes a Zcash shielded assist construct from this SDK

Viewing key assist

Description: Viewing keys are a protocol characteristic of the NU1 Sapling improve; they permit a viewing key holder to see incoming and outgoing transaction data for the related shielded handle, with out the power to switch any funds.

Rationale: Viewing keys are a key part of the Zcash worth proposition as a result of they permit customers to selectively disclose transaction data to 3rd events. The protocol characteristic has been in place for a yr, and the demand is thought, so following via with software assist is apparent.

Effort: We’ll develop a zcashd-based prototype.

Execution success standards:

  • A zcashd department has experimental viewing key RPC assist on mainnet

Strategic success indicators:

  • A number of third-party purposes have introduced viewing key assist

Ethereum protocol enhancements for Zcash

Description: The place potential to improve Ethereum in a way that advantages Zcash interoperability with Ethereum, ECC goals to enhance that interoperability.

Rationale: Ethereum is the present focus for Defi and different decentralized Dapps, and by bridging ZEC to that market, each techniques can profit: Defi/Dapp customers achieve entry to personal storage with much less platform danger, and ZEC holders achieve entry to the Defi/Dapp market. ECC envisions extending the privateness protections of the Zcash shielded pool outward throughout bridging protocols to enhance non-public utilization of Defi/Dapp use circumstances. Assuming Istanbul prompts with EIP152 Blake2 assist within the subsequent six months, protocols like tZEC will likely be potential. In idea, future upgrades to each Ethereum and Zcash might allow extending Zcash’s privateness throughout bridge protocols into the Defi or Dapp use circumstances. That is speculative, ongoing analysis, however it’s an thrilling chance ECC is dedicated to exploring.

Effort: Present coordination and advocacy for Ethereum EIP152 deployment in Istanbul.

Execution success standards: There isn’t any excellent effort required of ECC to realize the enterprise goal for this quarter.

Strategic success indicators:

  • Ethereum Istanbul prompts with EIP152 assist

Dev fund protocol assist

Description: ECC will consider and implement any possible dev fund or governance-based consensus rule modifications from the 2019/2020 Neighborhood Dev Fund choice course of. (Notice: ECC won’t train any discretionary authority over design that materially impacts governance, and as a substitute will work with the Zcash Basis and the group to resolve any such ambiguities in protocol improvement.) If the chosen proposal requires technically easy consensus rule modifications, the specification will likely be full and a testnet implementation will likely be full throughout the subsequent six months. If the consensus rule modifications are extra subtle, a ZIP draft will likely be prepared for evaluate and auditing by Zcash Basis and exterior auditors.

Rationale: ECC is dedicated to implementing the non-discretionary technical options essential to assist the group chosen Dev Fund proposal.

Effort: Publish an preliminary evaluation of technical feasibility and safety of the chosen dev fund proposal.

Execution success standards:

  • Our technical evaluation is posted throughout the ZIPs repository addressing the chosen ZIP

Strategic success indicators:

  • The muse’s technical staff has both publicly concurred with ECC’s technical evaluation or posted its personal different evaluation

Description: This objective lowers obstacles to entry for builders outdoors of ECC to contribute protocol modifications to Zcash. A brand new course of will likely be instituted for Community Improve Four which can make it simpler for different builders to get their desired protocol modifications into NU4.

Rationale: The present Community Improve Pipeline has recognized obstacles to entry for events outdoors of ECC or Zcash Basis to contribute Zcash protocol modifications, so this effort can handle these hurdles and encourage extra contributions to protocol improvement. With enhancements to this course of dovetailing with a brand new improvement fund and governance construction for Zcash, we anticipate substantial new expert and engaged improvement groups contributing to Zcash.

Effort: ECC will work with the Zcash Basis to suggest a brand new improve course of, incorporate suggestions from all present protocol developer orgs, then current the outcome to the general public.

Execution success standards:

  • ECC has printed the proposal and suggestions to the general public

Strategic success indicators:

  • Zcash Basis and a minimum of two of the 4 different collaborating improvement organizations publicly endorse the brand new course of

Scalability 2021

Description: The ECC Scalability 2021 mission is a long run R&D initiative to transition Zcash to a brand new structure with Layer 1 horizontal scalability. The present focus of this effort is in analysis and improvement round Halo, a brand new proof system that helps recursive proofs with no poisonous waste systemic vulnerability. Within the subsequent six months, we’ll have extra tutorial evaluate of Halo. We’ll even have a greater understanding of the related SNARKtember (the place a number of related but distinct analysis breakthroughs had been printed) outcomes and we anticipate additional potential developments as researchers uncover how these associated outcomes could also be mixed or improved upon.

Rationale: To ensure that Zcash to be helpful to billions of customers with out counting on middlemen, it should horizontally scale on the base layer. By making progress on this long run want now, properly earlier than it’s virtually vital, potential customers evaluating the long-term stability of blockchain platforms will likely be supplied with a believable path in the direction of international adoption in the long run. This helps them make a justifiable case for adopting Zcash amongst rivals. In idea, this analysis will assist Zcash transition to a brand new structure, able to assembly large layer 1 demand, and which can take away the poisonous waste danger and clear performance from Zcash.

Effort: We’ll add new optimizations with printed efficiency benchmarks to a brand new revision of the Halo paper. Analysis the outcomes from “SNARKtember.”

Execution success standards:

  • ECC publishes a brand new model of the Halo paper with optimizations and efficiency benchmarks
  • ECC publishes a weblog publish with comparative evaluation of SNARKtember outcomes

Strategic success indicators:

  • Zcash’s Scalability 2021 effort is referenced in a number of high-quality trade stories about scalability

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