HomeCoinsNano (NANO)Athena and Epoch v2 Blocks Defined | by Andy Johnson | Nano...

Athena and Epoch v2 Blocks Defined | by Andy Johnson | Nano | Jul, 2020

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Andy Johnson

Following the profitable launch of the V21 Athena node, node operators have been fast to replace and have already noticed some thrilling enhancements on the community.

One key function of the brand new launch was help for work issue modifications, which had been designed to tune work thresholds to be extra aligned with the development in computing energy since Nano’s launch in 2015.

Being constructed for pace and accessibility makes the method of sure forms of updates on the Nano community extra difficult in comparison with standard blockchains — and this work issue is a type of updates. Though there are a number of forms of community improve strategies accessible, this work issue change requires a slightly distinctive one involving epoch blocks.

As all accounts on the community will probably be upgraded upon the distribution of those epoch blocks, we wish to make it easier to perceive what they’re and why we’re utilizing them over different strategies.

The very first thing to grasp is {that a} majority of the nodes on the community have to help validating work on the new thresholds earlier than they take impact. It is because in the event that they didn’t have help but, they wouldn’t contemplate the blocks legitimate, so blocks can be dropped and never confirmed. For that reason, help was added in V21 however the thresholds aren’t required till a later date. This date is when accounts are upgraded by way of the epoch blocks.

The opposite purpose is that work validation must perform as effectively as doable as a result of it’s a key protection towards Denial of Service (DOS) assaults. If totally different work thresholds can apply for a block at any given time, then extra sources could also be required to correctly validate them. To keep away from this, the epoch blocks present a option to mark a degree within the account the place work validation can change from one threshold to a different, preserving the method of validation environment friendly.

For these eager about studying extra in regards to the execs and cons of this improve technique, see the Epoch blocks part of the Improve strategies documentation.

Epoch blocks had been particularly designed to restrict their capabilities. As soon as an epoch v2 block is added to an account chain, all additional blocks would require the up to date work difficulties as a way to be validated by the node, however no different modifications are made. Epoch blocks are unable to vary representatives or balances of accounts.

Epoch blocks are restricted of their scope and are unable to vary representatives or balances of accounts.

Though unrelated to the ledger itself, one other impression as soon as the epoch blocks are distributed is that nodes working variations sooner than V21 will probably be de-peered from the community. That is required as a result of these nodes will now not be capable of validate the brand new issue thresholds and would fall out of sync with the community.

Epoch blocks have already been used on the community when the transition from legacy blocks to the one state block was made in late 2018. See the State Blocks Community Improve particulars in our docs for extra data on that particular transition.

The node is coded in order that solely epoch blocks from a selected account will probably be thought of legitimate. The personal key for this account is owned by the Nano Basis, who will use it to distribute epoch blocks to the community to make sure all accounts are correctly upgraded.

We proceed to watch the progress of node upgrades to V21+. As soon as over 90% of on-line voting weight is upgraded and key companies are on the brand new model, epoch distribution will start.

You might even see an epoch block robotically present up on accounts you personal. That is anticipated and there’s nothing you need to do to your account improve.

As soon as your account is up to date, you will note an identical Epoch entry on standard block explorers like NanoCrawler.

If you’re a service operator and/or generate Proof of Work for making transactions then it’s best to just remember to are aware of the scope of the incoming modifications and guarantee you will have made the related preparations per the documentation discovered right here:

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